Carinaria lamarcki challengeri

Carinaria lamarcki forma challengeri Bonnevie, 1920


This is a very large shelled pelagic snail, up to 4 cm long, with an almost completely transparent body. The body can never withdraw into the shell. The shell is low conical with a high keel. Only the broad triangular visceral nucleus is darkly pigmented. The large eyes, with black retina, and the mouth organs are clearly seen. The intestine is frequently full and visible. The body is long and cylindrical with one swimming fin. It hunts large prey such as fish, shelled pteropods and other heteropods. It lives in the upper layers of the warm waters of all oceans (Carinaria l. challengeri).

Taxonomic Description

Notable differences with Carinaria l. forma lamarcki are the smaller body, the anterior position of the visceral nucleus, the smaller number of gills, the larger coiled portion of the visceral nucleus, the larger tail clasper and the similar but smaller eyes. The cutis is thick with many small tubercles, especially on the upperside. The clasper is entirely or only centrally covered with an intense black pigment.
Body length maximum 40 mm.


The juveniles have a small, dextrally coiled shell. A special description is not available.


In this form the sexes are separate.


This form is carnivorous and epipelagic.


This form occurs in the warmer waters of the Atlantic and Pacific waters, see the Carinaria l. challengeri map.


Carinaria lamarcki var. challengeri Bonnevie, 1920: 6, pl. 2, figs. 16-25.
Lectotype: ZMVB 23362(alcohol collection). Paralectotypes: ZMVB 23362, 1 spec.; ZMVB 23365, 2 spec.; ZMVB 23366, 4 spec.; ZMVB 23367, 1 spec.
Type locality: 28°42'N 20°0'W and 36°53'N 29°47'W, Coll: CMSE stat. 45 and stat. 562. The specimens from CMSE, stat. 51 are lost, the specimens of CMSE, stat. 39A (ZMVB 23368) and stat. 52 (ZMVB 23363) show no clasper. From CMSE, stat. 56 there were 10 specimens instead of 9 specimens as originally described. The spec. ZMVB 30439 and ZMVB 23364 have no original label so that these can be omitted. For these reasons ZMVB 23363, 23364, 23368 and 30439 were not considered to be paralectotypes.